A target language is a language that is the focus or end result of certain processes.

In applied linguistics and second-language pedagogy, the term "target language" refers to any language that learners are trying to learn in addition to their native language. The same concept is often expressed as "second language" or "L2."

In translation, the term "target language" is applied to the language that a source text is being translated into.

In computer science, for example, a "target language" is the computer language that a compiler translates source code into.